එතෙරින් මෙතරට/ මෙතරින් එතෙරට මුදල් ගෙන යාමේදී ඔබ දැනගත යුතුම දෑ

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විදේශීය මුදල් මෙරටට රැගෙන ඒම

යම් පුද්ගලයෙකුට

  • සාමාන්‍ය බැංකු මාර්ග ඔස්සේ නීත්‍යානුකූලව උපයාගත් විදේශ මුදල් ඕනෑම ප්‍රමාණයක් ශ්‍රී ලංකාව තුලට එවිය හැකිය.
  • තැපැල් කාර්යාලයීය ආඥා පනතේ සිමාවන්ට යටත්ව, විදේශීය මුදල්වලින් ප්‍රකාශිත මුදල් ඇනවුම් හෝ තැපැල් ඇනවුම් තැපෑලෙන් ප්‍රේෂණයකළ හැකිය.
  • යම් විදේශීය මුදලක් තමා වෙත හෝ ගමන් මලු තුල රැගෙන ආ හැකිය.  එහෙත් සමස්ත මුදල් ප්‍රමාණය ඇමරිකානු ඩොලර් 15,000.00 ක් හෝ ඊට සමාන වෙනත් විදේශීය මුදල් ප්‍රමාණය ඉක්මවන්නේ නම්, පැමිණීමේ පර්යන්තයේදී රේගුවට ලිඛිතවප්‍රකාශයක් කළ යුතුය.
  • ඔහු හෝ ඇය, ඇ.ඩො.5000/= කට වැඩි හෝ ඒ සමාන අගයක විදේශ මුදල් නෝට්ටු ආපසු ගෙන යාමට අදහස් කරන්නේ නම් තමා ගෙන එන සමස්ත මුදල් ප්‍රමාණය ඇ.ඩො.15000/= ක වටිනාකමට වඩා අඩුවූවත්  එම මුදල් පිළිබඳව පැමිණීමේ පර්යන්තයේදී රේගුවට ප්‍රකාශ කර සිටීම අවශ්‍ය වේ.
විදේශීය මුදල් ශ්‍රී ලංකාවෙන් පිටතට රැගෙන යාම
  • බලයලත් විදේශ මුදල් ගනුදෙනුකරුවෙකුට සිය සාමාන්‍ය ව්‍යාපාර කටයුතුවලදී අත්කර ගෙන ඇති විදේශ මුදල්, ලබාදී ඇති අවසරයේ සීමාවන් තුල, ශ්‍රී  ලංකාවෙන් පිටතට යැවිය හැකිය.
  • ශ්‍රී  ලාංකිකයෙකුට විනිමය පාලන පනතේ නියමයන්ට යටත්ව නීත්‍යානුකූලව උපයාගත් විදේශ මුදල් පිටතට ගෙනයාමට හෝ යැවීමට හැකිය.  විදේශ මුදල් සන්තකයෙහි තබාගැනීම සම්බන්ධයෙන් විනිමය පාලකවරයාගේ 2007.09.25 දිනැති අංක 1516 /19 දරණ ගැසට් නියෝගයට අනුව, තමා සන්තකයෙහි  රඳවාගෙන සිටින විදේශීය මුදල් පිටතට රැගෙන යා හැකිය.
  • විදේශිකයෙකුට අවසන් වරට තමා ගෙනඑන ලද, වියදම් නොකර ඉතිරි වූ විදේශීය මුදල් ප්‍රමාණය පිටතට ගෙන යා හැකිය. එහෙත් සමස්ත මුදල් වටිනාකම ඇ.ඩො.10,000/= හෝ වෙනත් මුදල් වර්ගයකින් ඒ හා සමාන මුදලක් ඉක්මවා යන්නේ නම් හෝ නෝට්ටුවලින් නම් ඇ.ඩො.5000/=ක් හෝ වෙනත් මුදල් වර්ගයකින් ඒ හා සමාන මුදලක් ඉක්මවන්නේ නම්, ඔහු හෝ ඇය ඒ පිළිබඳව රේගුවට ලිඛිත ප්‍රකාශයක් කළ යුතුය.

ආයතනයේ තොරතුරු

රේගු දෙපාර්තුමේන්තුව

නො 40,
කෙලින් වීදිය,
කොළඹ 11.

කේ. ඩී. එන්. ඒ මිල්රෝයි මහතා
දුරකථන:+94-11-2470945 to +94-11-2470948
ෆැක්ස් අංක:+94-11-2446364
විද්‍යුත් තැපෑල:slcdgc@slt.lk
වෙබ් අඩවිය: www.customs.gov.lk

මූලාශ්‍රය රේගු දෙපාර්තමේන්තුව

10 tons of copper coins unearthed in 2,000 years old ancient tomb

In Xinjian, China’s Jiangxi Province, recetnly a 2,000 years old tomb from Western Han Dynasty (206BC – 9AD) was discovered. Over 10,000 objects were unearthed, including 10 tons of cooper coins (2 millions pieces, which have equal value of 50 kilograms of gold today), chime, bamboo slips, tomb figurines etc., which reveal the lives of the nobility in the Western Han Dynasty.
By Yao Xinyu (People’s Daily Online) 12:54, November 05, 2015
FOREIGN201511051255000491082023819

FOREIGN201511051255000493186152008

FOREIGN201511051257000072704044092

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Beginner Coin Collecting Tips

Beginner Coin Collecting Tips: Basic Items Every Coin Collector Needs

If you’re reading this, you may be thinking about getting into collecting coins. That’s great!

Coin collecting is not only a hobby… it’s an investment. Every coin that you add to your collection will only gain value over the years.

So, what tools and supplies do you need to start collecting?

 

 

A magnifying tool. 

Magnifying GlassThis will be collators best friend, every collector has magnifying glass in their pocket. We have to read the dates and mint marks conditions while holding them up at different angles in the light to see if that would help. Magnifying glass comes with different types with different sizes. Recommend to buy with led light. It will help you to read details clearly.

 

 

Numismatists books
this will be the best way to get information about coins, there are many books published for Coins and Currency Publicationscollectors offers the most historically accurate references. Find them and read grow your knowledge. Also you can refer online articles from internet,

 

 

 

 

 

Coin Storages

Coin tube

Coin tubes are ideal for storing large quantities of coins.tubes are archival safe for long term storage. This will help you to store your coins with less space and organize.

s-l500

Coin holders and capsules

PVC free Airtight capsules offer superb long term protection and will improve the appeal of your collection. this coin capsules comes with different sizes and different brands make sure to get acid free quality capsules.

$_57 coin capsules

 

 

 

 

Coin Albums 

Large selection of different type coin albums available, but try to get good quality albums it’s save your coins and best protection for your collection . be careful when you select albums , some chines made cheap coin album contain acid they will damage your coins.
recommended brands NUMIS Lighthouse(Germany)

Lighthouse coin album

 

Coin holders Flips Cardboard/Plastic

efficient way to keep your coins organized. You can store them in coin album after store in coin flips. other advantage is easy to catalog the coins, you can write year, catalog code, country. Self-adhesive type recommended if not use copper or copper coated stapler pins to apply.  Ordinary stapler made by steel, due to rust it will damage coin flip then coin album.

coin flips

coin flips

coin flips -plastic

coin flips -plastic

 

Copper Stapler pins

Copper Stapler pins

 

 

special gloves

 

COIN INSPECTION GLOVESIf you get into more serious or high-grade coins you’ll want to have special gloves since human skin has oils and dirt that can be harmful to coins. A thin pair of cotton gloves are best.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A Word of Advice about Cleaning Coins

NEVER CLEAN YOUR COINS!
If you are new to coin collecting, then you might be thinking about “cleaning” your coins. Yes, some of your coins are going to look dull and dingy, but cleaning coins reduces the value to a collector.

ජනපති තවත් ප‍්‍රශ්ණයක් විසඳයි.. මුදල් නෝට්ටු ලොකු කරයි..

Zimbabwes-hundred-billion-dollar-noteඉදිරියේදී මහ බැංකුව විසින් නිකුත් කරනු ලබන නව මුදල් නොට්ටු දැනට වසර කිහිපයකට පෙර තිබු මුදල් නෝට්ටුවල ප‍්‍රමාණයෙන් නිකුත් කරන ලෙස තමන් උපදෙස් දුන් බව ජනාධිපති මෛත‍්‍රීපාල සිරිසේන මහතාපවසයි.

ජනාධිපතිවරයා මේ සම්බන්ධයෙන් කියා සිටියේ තමන් මෙම තීරණය ගනු ලැබුවේ දෘෂ්‍යාබාධිත උපාධිධාරීන්ගේ සංගමයතමා හමුවීමට පැමිණ මෑතක දී නිකුත් කළ අලූත් වර්ගයේ මුදල් නෝට්ටු දෘෂ්‍යාබාධිතයන්ව හදුනාගත නොහැකි යැයි කළ දුක් ගැනවිල්ලකට අනුව බවයි.

ඒ අනුව නව මුදල් නොට්ටු ඉදිරියේදී වර්තමානයේ ඇති ප‍්‍රමාණයයට වඩා මදක් විශාල වනු ඇත.

President receives prestigious ‘Ceres’ medal

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

President receives prestigious ‘Ceres’ medal
by Ranil Wijayapala

President Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga, following in the footsteps of her mother, the late Prime Minister Sirimavo Bandaranaike, received the prestigious ‘Ceres’ medal from the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) of the United Nations for her commitment towards eradicating poverty and hunger.

History was created yesterday at the Ceylon Continental Hotel as it was the first time the FAO was presenting the ‘Ceres’ medal named after the Roman Goddess of agriculture to a daughter, whose mother had been awarded the same medal earlier.

The FAO awarded the ‘Ceres’ medal to Sirimavo Bandaranaike in 1976 for her commitment towards poverty and hunger.

Dr. Jacque Diouf, Director General of the FAO handed over the ‘Ceres’ medal to President Kumaratunga in recognition of her efforts to ‘foster rural development and peace in Sri Lanka as well as her personal collaboration with FAO in 1970s’.

The FAO in 1971, initiated the presenting of medals in the name of the Ceres, the Roman goddess of agriculture to honour distinguished women for their commitment towards eradicating poverty and hunger.

President Kumaratunga’s name was added to the list of distinguished women recipients which include the late Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and Mother Theresa.

In her address on receiving the medal, President Kumaratunga called on the international agencies and donor governments to continue their assistance towards eradicating poverty and hunger, specially in the conflict affected areas in the North-East.

Addressing the diplomatic community and representatives from UN Agencies gathered at the Ceylon Continental Hotel to witness the award ceremony, she pointed out that Sri Lanka’s challenge of eradicating poverty and hunger at the national level becomes more complex in situations of conflict.

“The conflict in the North and East of our country has resulted in an unfortunate imbalance in the indicators of social progress, malnutrition and hunger between the conflict-affected areas and the rest of the country,” the President said.

She said her Government was in the process of setting up an institutional framework for relief, reconstruction and rehabilitation in the war-ravaged areas of the country.

“In this regard, we will continue to seek the assistance of international agencies and donor governments,” the President added.

President Kumaratunga said the present Government has long recognised the necessity of creating a social, political and economic environment in which the problems of poverty alleviation and securing access to safe and nutritious food for all, could be vigorously addressed.

The FAO Director General recollected President Kumaratunga’s commitment towards eradicating poverty as an employee in the Agrarian Reforms sector in 1970’s.

“The Organisation confers this medal as a token of its esteem and respect for President Kumaratunga’s commitment to improve food security and nutrition and achieve the target set by the international community to halve the number of undernourished people in the world, by 2015,” Diouf added.

Foreign Affairs Minister Lakshman Kadirgamar proposed the vote of thanks at the conclusion of the ceremony.

Prime Minister Mahinda Rajapakse, Minister and Head of Missions in Sri Lanka were present at this ceremony.

http://archives.dailynews.lk/2004/05/29/new02.html

නෝට්‍ටු වලට අත්සන් තියන්නෙ රවීද? රනිල්ද?

0316නව ආණ්ඩුවේ අමාත්‍යවරුන්ට අදාල විෂය පථයන් වෙන්කිරීමේදී බොහෝ මතභේදාත්මක කරුණු මතුවූ අතර ඇතැම් අමාත්‍යවරු ඒ අම්බන්ධව ප්‍රසිද්ධියේම විවේඡනය කරන ලදී. මෙම විෂය පථයන් බෙදීම සම්බන්ධ අර්බුධය මහ බැංකුව විසින් අලුතින් මුදල් නෝට්‍ටු මුද්‍රණය කිරීමේදීද පැන නැඟී ඇති බවට වාර්තා වේ. ඒ වර්තමාන ආණ්ඩුවේ මුදල් අමාත්‍යවරයා වන්නේ රවී කරුණානායක මහතා වුවද මහ බැංකුව ඔහු යටතේ නොවීම නිසාය.
සමාන්‍යයෙන් මුදල් නෝට්‍ටු සඳහා මුදල් අමාත්‍යවරයා අත්සන් තැබීම සිරිත වුවද මහ බැංකුව නව අමාත්‍ය විෂය පථයන් වෙන්කිරීම තුළ අග්‍රාමාත්‍යවරයා යටතේ තිබීම නිසා මුදල් අමාත්‍යවරයාට මුදල් නෝට්‍ටු සඳහා අත්සන් තැබීමට නොහැකි තත්වයක් උදා වී ඇත. මේ සම්බන්ධව අවසාන තීරණය අග්‍රමාත්‍යවරයාගේ ජපන් නිල චාරිකාවෙන් පසුව ගැනීමට මේ වනවිට තීරණය කර ඇත.

 

 

රවී අත්සන් කරන මුදල් නෝට්ටු වලංගුද?

0219

ශ්‍රී ලංකාවේ වලංගු මුදල් නෝට්ටු වල නිල අත්සන් තැබිය යුත්තේ මුදල් අමාත්‍යවරයාද නැතහොත් මහ බැංකුව අයත්වන ජාතික ප්‍රතිපත්ති හා ආර්ථික කටයුතු අමාත්‍යංශය භාර අමාත්‍යවරයා ද යන්න පිලිබඳ නෛතික ගැටළුවක් ඇති වී ඇතැයි ඒ පිලිබඳ උනන්දුවක් දක්වන පාර්ශව පවසනවා.

 

මීට හේතු වී ඇත්තේ ඇමැතිවරුන්ගේ විෂය පථයන් තීන්දු කරන නව ගැසට් නිවේදනය අනුව ශ්‍රී ලංකා මහ බැංකුව අයත්වන්නේ රවී කරුණානායක මහතා යටතේ ඇති මුදල් අමාත්‍යංශයට නොව අග්‍රාමාත්‍ය රනිල් වික්‍රමසිංහ මහතා යටතේ පවතින ජාතික ප්‍රතිපත්ති හා ආර්ථික කටයුතු අමාත්‍යංශය වීම නිසා ය.

 

රටක මුදල් කාසි සහ නෝට්ටු නිකුත් කරන්නේ ඒ රටේ මුදල් සංචිත පවත්වා ගන්නා ප්‍රධාන බැංකුව විසිනි. ලංකාවේ නම් මහ බැංකුවයි.. ලෝකයේ අන් සියළුම රටවල පාහේ එකී බැංකුව පවතින්නේ රටේ මුදල් භාර ඇමැතිවරයා හෝ මූල්‍ය ආණ්ඩුකාරයා හෝ මුදල් ලේකම්වරයා ආදී විවිධ තනතුරු නාම වලින් හැඳින්වෙන නමුත් මුදල් පිලිබඳ පාර්ලිමේන්තුවට හෙවත් ව්‍යවස්ථාදායකයට වගකියන පුද්ගලයකු යටතේ ය.

 

ඒ අනුව මුදල් නෝට්ටු වලට අත්සන් තබන්නේ රටේ මුදල් සංචිත පවත්වා ගන්නා බැංකුවේ ප්‍රධානියා සහ මුදල් පිලිබඳ ව්‍යවස්ථාදායකයට වග කියන පෙරකී පුද්ගලයකු විසිනි. විශේෂ තැන්හිදී පමණක් එක් අයෙකුගේ අත්සන පමණක් තැබෙන අවස්ථාද වේ.

 

ලංකාවේ මෙතෙක් කාලයක් මුදල් නෝට්ටු නිකුත් කරන මහ බැංකුව අයත් වූයේ මුදල් ඇමැතිවරයා යටතේ බැවින් මහ බැංකුවේ ප්‍රධානී වන මහ බැංකු අධිපති සහ මුදල් ඇමැතිවරයා මුදල් නෝට්ටු වල අත්සන් තැබුනු නමුත් දැන් මහ බැංකුව අයත් වන්නේ අගමැතිවරයාට ය. මහ බැංකු අධිපතිගේ අත්සන ගැන ගැටලුවක් නැත. ගැටළුව ඇත්තේ අනෙක් අත්සන පිලිබඳවය. රටේ මුදල් පිලිබඳව පාර්ලිමේන්තුවට වගකියන්නේ මුදල් ඇමැතිවරයා ය. නමුත් තමන්ගේ වගකීමක් නැති ආයතනයකින් නිකුත් කරන නෝට්ටුවකට මුදල් ඇමැතිට අත්සන් තැබිය හැකිද..? අත්සන් කළද එම නෝට්ටුව වලංගුද?

– See more at: http://offair.nethfm.com/article/26919#sthash.VOnvwAJ5.dpuf

මුදල් නෝට්ටු මුද්‍රණයේ දී ජනපතිගෙන් උපදෙසක්

sirisenaමුදල් නෝට්ටු මුද්‍රණය කිරීමේ දී මින් ඉදිරියට දෘශ්‍යාබාධිත පුද්ගලයින්ට හඳුනා ගැනීමට හැකි සලකුණු සහිතව මුද්‍රණය කරන ලෙස ජනාධිපති මෛත්‍රිපාල සිරිසේන මහතා මහ බැංකුව වෙත උපදෙස් ලබා දී තිබේ.

මහ බැංකු නියෝජ්‍ය අධ්‍යක්ෂ ජනරාල්වරයාට ජනාධිපතිවරයා මෙම උපදෙස් ලබාදුන් බව ජනාධිපති මාධ්‍ය අංශය සඳහන් කරයි.

දැනට වසර 04 ක පමණ කාලයක සිට නිකුත් කරන මුදල් නෝට්ටුවල දෘශ්‍යාබාධිතයින්ට හඳුනා ගැනීමට සලකුණු නොමැති බැවින් තමන් මහත් අපහසුතාවයකට පත්වන බව දෘශ්‍යාබාධිත උපාධිධාරි සංගමයේ නියෝජිතයින් ජනාධිපතිවරයාට දැනුම් දී ඇත.

ඒ අනුව ජනාධිපතිවරයා මහ බැංකුවට මෙම උපදෙස් ලබා දුන් බව ජනාධිපති මාධ්‍ය අංශය පවසයි.

Saturday, 10 October 2015
http://sinhala.asianmirror.lk/local-news/item/16317-2015-10-09-11-55-38

Mr. Gordon’s Wonder Emporium

By Uditha Devapriya
CEYLON TODAY  2015-01-04 02:00:0011113568_1609144716037334_3778953532313229720_n

For most of us, museums are connected with the past, reminding us that whatever the future holds will be determined by that which has gone by. They are a fixed point, on which everything is to be assessed. Gordon de Silva runs something I would call a museum. I have trouble calling him a curator or archivist though. He is much more than that. His is a story that hasn’t been done justice to. Not yet. A passionate lover of cinema, he lays bare his heart to me. The true worth of the man can only be judged with a book. It hasn’t come out yet, but I can try something close to it.10906022_1515111642109996_6231019649670060815_n

For most of us, museums are connected with the past, reminding us that whatever the future holds will be determined by that which has gone by. They are a fixed point, on which everything is to be assessed. Gordon de Silva runs something I would call a museum. I have trouble calling him a curator or archivist though. He is much more than that. His is a story that hasn’t been done justice to. Not yet. A passionate lover of cinema, he lays bare his heart to me. The true worth of the man can only be judged with a book. It hasn’t come out yet, but I can try something close to it.

This is his story.
Gordon de Silva was born in 1964 in Colombo. His father, Sanath de Silva, was a manager of a printing press; he had been involved with Sinhala Jathiya (later published as Swadeshi Printers). From an early age, Gordon had been in his father’s world. “When I had nothing to do, I would enter and explore the press.”
He also had been fascinated by constructing things. “I loved to play with toys at that age,” he tells me, “But my father never bought them for me. What he did was to make me build my own toys. Father would buy the basic items to make them.”
Most children would take to putting things together and building something out of them, which is what happened to young Gordon. His mother apparently wanted him to be a carpenter, and he admits that as time went by, he himself began to entertain this idea. This had been the case even at his school. His mother even wrote “Carpentry” as her preferred line of trade for him.
He was educated at Mahanama College, Colombo 3, where he managed to develop his love. “I always wanted to build something new, out of the ordinary, so that I could stand out,” he says with a twinkle in his eye. No doubt he had a childhood which never denied him materials for his talent. Time and destiny would prove him. Eventually.
Gordon explains here why his mother had wanted him to take to carpentry, which in his day had been looked down upon as a less than desirable job. “Carpentry is a shilpaya (craft) which one must have a firm grip on. My mother wanted me to be my own master.”
His father on the other hand provided him with a set of tools, encouraging his talent even more. This was complemented by another fact. His father, Gordon tells me, was an avid photographer. I ask him to explain whether that had any bearing on his later life, and he does so readily.
“He was a madcap over photography. One of his students had been Wilson Hegoda, who later founded the National Photographic Art Society. My father would take me to various meetings of photographic societies, where I experienced firsthand what it meant to be in that field.” He had come into contact with cameras and other photography tools, and this had sparked an interest in the trade in him. “Needless to say, I wanted to become a photographer,” he smiles.
Photography and carpentry of course don’t seem to go hand in hand, but as Gordon explains I begin to realise how much his career was influenced by the two meeting together.
“I would take photos constantly. In fact it very nearly became an obsession. I learnt about photography while keeping my interest in carpentry. There were other factors that weighed in as well.
“It so happened that we had a slide projector at home. That’s one thing. The other thing was that my father would take us to see English films once every two weeks. I don’t remember the plot of every film I watched, but they were almost always big-budget epics like Ben-Hur and Cleopatra.” It is perhaps a sign of how hyped they were in their time, but Gordon admits that they remained in his mind long after he watched them.
His mother on the other hand loved Sinhala films. “It was mother who took us to see them, because my father didn’t have a soft spot where Sinhala cinema was concerned.” It was a bilingual celluloid world that Gordon resided in, no doubt, and this would have opened to him the best of both worlds. And this could have meant just one thing. “I decided to make a slide projector on my own.” He was 11 at the time. Hardly an age for such a thing. Still, young Gordon would have been very precocious.
He learnt the basic principle of projectors: pictures rushing through at 24 frames a second for a feature film. “With that principle in mind, I decided to build a cinema hall in my house. The problem was that I couldn’t use wood to make a projector. I had to build it from matchboxes.” He is grateful at this point to all those who helped him, because he believes that it was here where his career really began.
“My family encouraged me. Wholeheartedly. I wanted to experiment, and all they did was to lend me a helping hand. I will always appreciate that.” At a time when families and in particular close relatives try to decide what is best for a child, no doubt this was a blessing for young Gordon. The projector would eventually be made by the time he turned 16, five years later.
Making the projector didn’t satisfy him. I suspect that Gordon would have been inquisitive when young, and I may not be wrong in this. In any case, it didn’t take long for him to obsess over something else. “I watched Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs when I was quite small. Cartoons are a different kettle of fish from feature films. My next target, therefore, was to make my own animated film.” His had been a problem unfortunately, because making an animated film wasn’t going to be as easy as running 24 frames every second.
Fate plays its tricks. One thing led to another. It so happened that around this time, Sri Lanka’s first cartoon film was released. This was Dutugemunu, directed by a person Gordon describes as one of his figures of destiny, Givantha Arthasad. “I wanted to meet the man,” he remembers, “and through my contacts, I got down his address. Hoping and praying for a reply, I wrote to him on his birthday (October 15), asking whether he could teach me his craft at his leisure.” The letter never got a reply, but things would move fast thereafter.
1982 came. Rupavahini was started and Sri Lanka began its love affair with television. Gordon found himself at this time in the Institute of Television Technology, the country’s first TV school. “The man who taught us there wanted us to come forward and introduce ourselves,” he remembers, “My turn came eventually. I got up and began the icebreaker. The moment I mentioned my name, the teacher cut me short. He came up-to me and asked ‘Are you that fellow who wrote to me?’ Lo and behold, it was the great Givantha Arthasad himself!”
He tells me here that he had remembered him even long after that letter had been posted, which could have meant just one thing: “He wanted to meet me.” During the interval, he reminded Arthasad about what he had written in his letter. “‘Alright, let’s make a camera then!’ was his prompt reply,” Gordon tells me, smiling. But first, he was asked to make a particular device. Seeing it after some time, Arthasad had given his student some words of advice: “Learn about television. It will help you greatly in what you want to become.”
Gordon took these words to heart. “I joined Rupavahini, ending whatever commitment I had with my father’s printing press. This was in March 1983. I became a Graphic Animation Letter Artist. I am on a more senior level now, with the same post. My thirst for cinema never died down. I read and learnt much.
“Eventually, Sri Lanka’s first-ever state-sponsored television academy was set up: the Sri Lanka Television Training Institute (SLTTI). I managed to meet up with two people who were instrumental in setting it up, Rainer and Nilly Welzel.”

They would shape Gordon’s destiny as well, when through them and their institute, he won a scholarship to Malaysia to study 3D animation. Scholarships to Canada and India would follow. Soon enough, he would move into the next phase of his career.
So how did Gordon the film fan became Gordon the archivist? “As I said before, I was an obsessive collector. I was archiving what I collected of course, but back then I wasn’t really interested in exhibiting them to the outside world.”
All this changed when he got the opportunity to visit the Visvasvaraya Museum in Bangalore. “What was interesting about that museum was that it had two sections to it, one for the Indian cinema and the other for world cinema.” Apparently it had everything or almost everything a film buff could ever hope to see, and this ignited something in his head.
He next visited a museum as different to the one he had seen as it could be. This was in Koggala. The Martin Wickramasinghe Folk Museum, Gordon tells me, was quite unlike anything he had come across. “It was, as the title said, a folk museum.”
These two visits had moved him tremendously. “I sought to incorporate the best of both places into something I could call my own,” he tells me. Unconsciously perhaps, he drove on with his obsession over collecting items, for no reason at the time, until in 2009 he would finally get to vindicate himself.
“I started my own archive. The idea for such a thing came from my students. I was teaching at the time, as some of those I taught wanted to see what I had collected. They were the ones who really put the idea into my head, especially because some of the items I had couldn’t be found in the country.” So on a quiet, uneventful day in November (on his birthday moreover), and with the blessings of everyone he had talked to, he opened the Museum Cinemaya. Sumitra Peries was the Chief Guest that day.
We move on to his love for archiving at this stage. He tells me that his museum reflects practically every stage the cinema had to go through. “Films didn’t fall from the sky. The camera was the precursor to them. I hence added photography to my collection. Then came the silent movies. That was followed by the talkies. So I began a radio collection. To promote talkies, a printing industry was begun. That was why I added a printing section. Films were later supplanted and even uprooted by television. I devoted a section in my museum for that too.”
It wouldn’t be wrong to say or to assume that the Museum Cinemaya is more than just your regular archive; its ambition seems to be to be a historical biography of cinema itself. No mean feat, that.

I ask him what exactly it was that made him want to build an archive like this. He replies to this by saying that since he was born a Sri Lankan, he wanted to contribute something to his country. “We have a cinema culture to be proud of. It’s sad that we don’t have a proper archive to collect and collate it. I decided to go ahead by myself and do something for my country’s film industry through Cinemaya.” From the looks of it, it seems quite feasible that the goals he has set for himself are monumental, even megalomaniac.
He tells me the underlying principle of any good archive. “The cinema is still developing. It’s the youngest of all art-forms. Sensitive to change. We are entering the digital age now. Costs are reducing, and because of that the quantity of films made the world over is increasing. I don’t know where Sri Lanka figures in all this, but the way I see it, it won’t take long for our cinema to be digitised.001_camera
“For instance, nowadays it’s the trend to use computers to edit. There’s no need for Moviolas. But what happens to them? Do we allow them to rot away, or do we preserve them for generations to come? I’ve been grappling with that question too, and I think that we should opt for preservation.” The West has gone beyond preservation now, though, and has moved into restoration. That’s a sign of how far behind we still are.
He mentions another point here. “Every art-form needs a solid foundation. It’s basically this argument: to spurn convention, you must know convention. Films don’t subsist always on what directors from the past said. They change. The grammar and syntax of cinema are always being revised. But without a foundation for that change, we can’t hope to grow.”
He will doubtless agree here that while there have been directors who have deliberately twisted and disobeyed the traditional rules of cinema, one needs a solid grasp of the principles of filmmaking if one is to direct films at all. This seems to be a guiding principle in Cinemaya.
So what has been his biggest problem in this? “For any archivist, the first big obstacle would obviously be sourcing what he archives. This isn’t really a problem at first glance. But when you delve into it, you will realise the pitfalls you have to avoid. The Museum Cinemaya has every film carefully detailed from 1925 onwards. We are talking about more than a thousand films here. That’s a lot of work.” I ask him here whether he has taken any precaution against this, and he happily says that he has.
“I am always careful whenever I give out information. That is why I have categorised my entire archive based on the sources each film has. The first category of films has information which is absolutely correct and beyond any doubt. The second category has information collected from other people. This I can’t guarantee, so I rarely give them to people. If I do, I always caution the person I am giving it to against relying on it too much. The third category, which I never divulge to people, is as yet un-sourced. Those films have no references. I am still finding information on them.
“Let me give you an example. Suppose you want to know whether a particular actress took part in a film. I would have to go through every source related to that film, and based on what category I used, I will affirm whether she did act in it. It’s even harder when music is involved. As you know, lyrics can be changed. And they are. So if you want to refer to a song in a film, I would have to delve deep and find out the original, unaltered version of that song in a songbook. That’s no easy task. But the end result of it all, which I very much appreciate, is that I give information to the public which can be relied on, though not 100%.”
I jokingly put it to him that nothing in this world can ever be proved 100%, and he agrees. “That’s why I can never publish a book on what I have archived. Film details never stay the same.” Inevitable. He tells me however that there can be inter-category shifts, and with films listed in the second category becoming 100% verifiable and moving to the first. Happily for him, even films in the third category are moving upwards.
There is always a question I put to people like Mr Gordon. “Why do you do it?” would of course be useless to ask here, but I ask it nonetheless. He is cautious when answering this. “There are two ways you can look at what I am doing. You can praise it, thinking that it’s needed in a world where the old is fading away thanks to the new. The cinema cannot be restored the same way other art-forms can. You cannot republish films. You cannot rebuild old equipment.
“But you can also shrug off what I am doing, thinking that it’s unnecessary in a world that is embracing the new. I subscribe to neither line of thinking. What I do is what I love. It’s as simple as that. It may not be palatable to many, but at the end of the day, I feel that I have contributed my share to this country.”
The Museum Cinemaya is in Kottawa. That’s where its founder lives. It hasn’t been completely digitised yet, and it won’t be until he manages to get every little nugget of information verified. Not easy, you must admit. It’s almost always a nightmare for the archivist. But Gordon de Silva loves what he does. He always will. At the end of the day, that’s all that matters. And we are all the happier for it.

https://www.facebook.com/museumcinemaya/videos/vb.1384626628489145/1609159152702557/?type=3&theater
You can contact Gordon de Silva through email at cine_museum@yahoo.com

හිරෙන් ආ මන්ත්‍රි පිළිගත් මාලයේ රුපියල් 5000 නෝට්ටු

GossipClanka.com

බස්නාහිර පළාත් සභා මන්ත්‍රී මීගමුව එජාප සංවිධායක රොයිස් ප්‍රනාන්දු මන්ත්‍රීවරයාට ඊයේ  මීගමුව පළාත්බද මහධිකරණ විනිසුරු එච්. එම්. ඒ. ගෆූර් මහතා ඇප ලබාදුන් අතර එම අවස්ථාවේදී ඔහු පිළිගැනීමට පාක්ෂිකයන් රැසක් එක්වී සිටි අතර ඔවුන් මන්ත්‍රීවරයා පිළිගත්තේ 5000 නෝට්ටු වලින් සැකසූ මාලයක් පළදවමිනි. අනතුරුව රොයිස් ප්‍රනාන්දු මන්ත්‍රීවරයා විසින් මීගමුවේ කඩොල්කැලේ දේවස්ථානයේ දේව මෙහෙයකට සහභාගී වුණා, පසුව අභාවප්‍රාත්ත වූ තම මෑණියන්ගේ සොහොන් කොත අසලට පැමිණි අතර අනතුරුව මීගමුව නගරයේද සංචාරයක නිරත වුණා, ඔහු බන්ධනාගාර ගතව සිටියේ මීගමුව ජුවෙල් ලංකා ආයතනයේ රත්තරන් බඩු මංකොල්ල සිද්ධියට සම්බන්ධවයි. මේ සිද්ධිය සම්බන්ධව රොයිස් විජිත ප්‍රනාන්දු ඇතුළු තිදෙනෙක් රක්ෂිත බන්ධනාගාරගතව සිටියේය.

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Currency Features for Visually Impaired People

Appendix D:
Features in Use Worldwide

There are currently over 180 countries in the world that issue their own banknotes. Of these, around 50 countries print the banknotes internally; the remainder have their banknotes printed by commercial currency security printers under contract. Some countries have specifically addressed the problem of visually disabled people and have striven to add appropriate features. Other countries have coincidentally included effective features in the course of producing an attractive banknote design, although the prime aim was assisting the normally sighted public to handle denominations easily.

 

Breakdown of Feature Types

The existing range of feature types is characterized below. An enlargement of their use in practice is given in the following section.

  1. variable-size banknotes;
  2. large numerals on banknotes;
  3. variable-color banknotes;
  4. special shaped patterns;
  5. specific engraved visible markings;
  6. specific engraved invisible markings;
  7. watermark features; and
  8. machine-identifiable features.

 

Description of Feature Types

 

Variable-Size Banknotes

Of the 171 issuing authorities identified by the committee, more than 100 issue banknotes that vary in size for the different denominations. Size variation currently occurs in two forms:

Page 102

Suggested Citation: “Appendix D: Features in Use Worldwide.” National Research Council. Currency Features for Visually Impaired People. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 1995.

 

(1) the long edge varies while the short edge remains constant (e.g., in Iceland) or (2) both edges vary (e.g., in England).

Size variation was originally introduced to allow the normally sighted public an easy way to differentiate among denominations. This was particularly useful when the basic design style was common among different denominations. Wallets were produced with different size pockets to enable the banknotes to be easily separated.

Subsequently, it has been found that this is a useful aid to visually disabled people, including the blind population. Simple size gauges have been made that enable the note to be examined by touch against a fixed reference point so that denomination can be determined. Recently there has been a worldwide trend toward reducing the size of banknotes for cost-related reasons. This has been mainly caused by rising inflation leading to an increased need for ever higher denomination banknotes and, hence, extra-large sizes. Where size variation within a denominational structure exists, it has been retained for any new family of notes.

 

Large Numerals on Banknotes

Banknote designers have often considered it important to ensure that the denomination in numerals, rather than in text, is displayed in a prominent position. The size of the numerals has depended on the overall design style and the number of repetitions of the denomination on each face of the note. With fewer repetitions, it has been possible to incorporate larger numerals.

The presence of large numerals helps both the normally sighted and the visually disabled public and is an approach that has been taken with increasing frequency in recent years.

The current Dutch series of banknotes has been designed with extremely large central values on both faces. The number value is a predominant part of the design. A more common approach is the use of a single large numeral value, as displayed on the current Czech Republic currency. More and more modern designs are being produced with this type of approach. Of the 171 issuing authorities tabulated in Table D-1 (at the end of this appendix), 24 can be said to have adopted a specific scheme including large numerals in their banknote design.

 

Variable-Color Banknotes

The currency of the United States is exclusive in the world for its use of common colors front and back for all denominations of banknotes. Even where countries use same-size banknotes for each denomination, they use color as a means of distinguishing the individual value. Of the 171 issuing authorities tabulated below, 167 use a clearly differentiated color scheme for all denominations and an additional two use color for some denominations.

Although people have various degrees of color vision, distinctive color differences among denominations, using appropriately chosen colors, can form a major separation technique for all except blind people. The amount of color difference depends on the individual choice of the country.

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Suggested Citation: “Appendix D: Features in Use Worldwide.” National Research Council. Currency Features for Visually Impaired People. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 1995.

Special Shaped Patterns

Besides printing large denominational values to assist certain sections of the visually disabled public, a more recent approach has been to print a distinctively shaped image on each note that changes with the value. The current series from the Bank of England has a solid circle to represent £5, a diamond for £10, a square for £20, and a triangle for £50. The printings are made in strong colors with a clear edge to the shape to aid recognition by the visually disabled population.

 

Specific Engraved Visible Marks

The use of intaglio printing on currency has long been regarded as a way of providing a tactile feature for blind people. This assumption is based on the fact that blind people use touch to identify the raised characteristics of braille. Since intaglio itself is a three-dimensional printing process, specific identifiers can be included to separate each denomination. The marks have taken the form of small geometric shapes that form different groupings and locations for each denomination. In practice there is a large difference between the relief of an average braille dot above the paper surface (approximately 400 µm) and that of the typical intaglio marks (approximately 40-50 µm). During the course of a banknote’s circulated life, as the note becomes worn, the level of the mark’s profile becomes reduced. Examples of tactile marks can be seen on the currencies of Germany, the Netherlands, and Malaysia. The survey (Table D-1) indicated that around 16 countries have adopted this approach for each denomination, and a further 7 have a tactile feature on some denominations.

Current thinking in the banknote manufacturing community is that the marks are an attempt to provide a feature useful to visually impaired people, but in practice they are only evident to the normally sighted. Currency design is moving toward the inclusion of large numerals or special shaped patterns.

 

Specific Engraved Invisible Marks

A recent development in features for visually disabled people can be seen in the Dutch approach to the new 100 Guilder banknote. A large part of the front surface of the note is covered with intaglio printed transparent ink in the form of randomly located dots. This has the merit of enabling a large area of the note to be used for tactile effects without affecting the visual security image.

On the current series, the dots have been included to provide a tactile clue for the presence of genuine currency versus a flat counterfeit. Modification of the area layout could allow for a specific pattern to be included for each denomination. The dots are 1.0 mm in diameter and have a height above the background of 70 µm.

Page 104

Suggested Citation: “Appendix D: Features in Use Worldwide.” National Research Council. Currency Features for Visually Impaired People. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 1995.

 

Watermark Images

The Japanese have introduced a set of special geometric watermark shapes in the corner of the note to give assistance in denomination. The watermark has a sharp visual profile that gives a clear image by transmission. The nature and location of the image changes with denomination.

Measurements taken from banknotes have shown that the lighter areas are 50 µm below the average height of the paper. Again this can be compared with the value of 400 µm for braille characters.

 

Machine-Identifiable Features

The Bank of Canada has a design similar to that of the United States in that it issues common-size dollar bills. When the current series of notes was being developed, particular attention was paid to the problem of the visually disabled population. In addition to using some large numerals and lettering, the bank decided to develop a small hand-held device to ensure a note could be positively identified.

The notes have been designed with specific, large colored patches in the intaglio pattern changing in location on each denomination. A detector was developed that is capable of assessing the presence or absence of the intaglio ink in specific places. By using a simple coding arrangement, it is possible to positively identify the denomination of each note. An audible message is given from the device for the benefit of blind people. Although the unit can discriminate among denominations in genuine currency, it is not to be regarded as an authentication device, as it can be confused by simple black patches drawn on genuine or counterfeit banknotes.

 

Summary of Features on Worldwide Currencies

The following table shows the major features contained in 171 different styles of banknotes around the world. The table is not exhaustive, as some countries issue more than one style of note (e.g., Scotland), and the varying political state of the world leads to formation of new countries where currency details are limited (e.g., the former Yugoslavia). The term “issuing authority” indicates that the entity described has permission to design and print currency but may not be a sovereign country. For example, the Isle of Man, Guernsey, Northern Ireland, England, and Scotland each issue banknotes exchangeable throughout the United Kingdom. All are considered issuing authorities, but not all are independent countries.

Some of the currencies described in Table D-1 are no longer issued but are included as examples of currency in circulation around the world. The number of denominations currently issued is included where known. When countries issue banknotes with new designs, the new

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Suggested Citation: “Appendix D: Features in Use Worldwide.” National Research Council. Currency Features for Visually Impaired People. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 1995.

 

notes generally cocirculate with the old-design notes, which can result in as many as 20 different banknotes being legal tender at any one time.

 

Concluding Observations

It can be seen that a number of different approaches have been used to provide banknotes more suitable to the visually disabled population. However, no single approach has emerged as the standard for all notes worldwide. This has to do with issues of tradition as well as issues of viability.

 

References

 

Haslop, J.M. 1994. Personal communication to the Committee on Currency Features Usable by the Visually Impaired. August 1994.

Page 106

Suggested Citation: “Appendix D: Features in Use Worldwide.” National Research Council. Currency Features for Visually Impaired People. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 1995.

Table D-1

Summary of Currency Features for Visually Disabled People Used in Currency from 171 Issuing Authorities Around the World

Denomination Differentiation Method

(Y = yes; N = no; S = some denominations)

Issuing Authority

Number of Denominations

Color

Size

Tactile Recognition Symbol

Large

Numeral

Afghanistan

6

Y

S

N

S

Albania

4

Y

Y

N

N

Algeria

4

Y

S

N

N

Angola

6

Y

Y

N

N

Argentina

7

Y

N

Y

Y

Armenia

6

Y

S

Y

N

Aruba

5

Y

N

Y

Y

Australia

5

Y

Y

N

S

Austria

6

Y

Y

Y

N

Bahamas

7

Y

N

N

Y

Bahrain

5

Y

S

N

N

Bangladesh

7

Y

Y

N

N

Barbados

6

Y

N

N

N

Belgium

6

Y

Y

Y

Y

Belize

6

Y

N

N

N

Bermuda

6

Y

N

N

N

Bolivia

5

Y

N

N

S

Botswana

5

Y

Y

N

S

Brazil

6

Y

N

N

S

Brunei

7

Y

Y

N

N

Bulgaria

5

Y

Y

Y

Y

Burundi

5

Y

Y

N

S

Cambodia

7

Y

Y

N

N

Cameroon

5

Y

Y

N

N

Canada

7

Y

N

N

Y

Page 107

Suggested Citation: “Appendix D: Features in Use Worldwide.” National Research Council. Currency Features for Visually Impaired People. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 1995.

Denomination Differentiation Method

(Y = yes; N = no; S = some denominations)

Issuing Authority

Number of Denominations

Color

Size

Tactile Recognition Symbol

Large Numeral

Cape Verde

5

Y

Y

N

N

Cayman Islands

4

Y

N

N

N

Central African Republic

5

Y

S

N

N

Chad

5

Y

Y

N

N

Chile

4

Y

N

N

N

China

6

Y

S

Y

N

Colombia

7

Y

N

S

N

Comoros

3

Y

Y

N

N

Congo

5

Y

Y

N

N

Cook Islands

4

Y

N

N

N

Costa Rica

5

Y

N

N

N

Croatia

11

Y

S

Y

N

Cuba

7

Y

N

N

N

Cyprus

5

Y

Y

S

N

Czech Republic

6

Y

Y

Y

N

Denmark

5

Y

S

N

N

Djibouti

5

Y

Y

N

N

Dominican Republic

8

Y

N

N

N

Eastern Caribbean Territories

5

Y

N

N

N

Ecuador

9

Y

N

N

N

Egypt

6

Y

S

N

N

El Salvador

7

S

Y

N

N

England

4

Y

Y

Y

N

Equatorial Guinea

4

Y

Y

N

N

Estonia

7

Y

N

N

S

Page 108

Suggested Citation: “Appendix D: Features in Use Worldwide.” National Research Council. Currency Features for Visually Impaired People. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 1995.

 

Denomination Differentiation Method

(Y = yes; N = no; S = some denominations)

Issuing Authority

Number of Denominations

Color

Size

Tactile Recognition Symbol

Large Numeral

Ethiopia

5

Y

Y

N

N

Falkland Islands

4

Y

N

N

N

Faroe Islands

7

Y

Y

N

N

Fiji

5

Y

Y

N

N

Finland

6

Y

N

N

N

France

5

Y

Y

N

S

French Territories in the Pacific

4

Y

Y

N

N

Gabon

5

Y

Y

N

N

Gambia

5

Y

Y

N

N

Germany

8

Y

Y

S

S

Ghana

6

Y

S

N

N

Gibraltar

5

Y

Y

N

N

Greece

5

Y

Y

N

N

Guatemala

7

Y

N

N

N

Guernsey

4

Y

Y

N

N

Guinea

6

Y

Y

N

N

Guinea-Bissau

6

Y

Y

N

N

Guyana

5

Y

N

N

N

Haiti

9

Y

S

N

N

Honduras

6

Y

Y

N

N

Hong Kong

5

Y

Y

N

N

Hungary

5

Y

N

N

N

Iceland

6

Y

Y

N

N

India

7

Y

S

N

N

Indonesia

7

Y

Y

N

N

Page 109

Suggested Citation: “Appendix D: Features in Use Worldwide.” National Research Council. Currency Features for Visually Impaired People. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 1995.

 

Denomination Differentiation Method

(Y = yes; N = no; S = some denominations)

Issuing Authority

Number of Denominations

Color

Size

Tactile Recognition Symbol

Large Numeral

Iran

7

Y

Y

N

N

Iraq

6

Y

Y

N

N

Ireland

4

Y

Y

N

N

Israel

7

Y

N

Y

N

Italy

6

Y

Y

N

N

Jamaica

7

Y

S

N

N

Japan

6

Y

Y

N

N

Jersey

5

Y

Y

N

N

Jordan

5

Y

Y

N

N

Kazakstan

8

Y

S

N

N

Kenya

6

Y

Y

N

N

Korea (South)

4

Y

Y

N

N

Kuwait

5

Y

Y

N

N

Laos

5

Y

Y

N

N

Lebanon

9

Y

Y

N

N

Lesotho

5

Y

Y

N

N

Libya

5

Y

Y

N

N

Lithuania

6

Y

N

N

N

Luxembourg

3

Y

Y

N

N

Macao

6

Y

Y

N

N

Madagascar

6

Y

S

N

N

Malawi

6

Y

Y

N

N

Malaysia

8

Y

Y

S

N

Maldives

7

Y

N

N

N

Mali

5

Y

Y

N

N

Page 110

Suggested Citation: “Appendix D: Features in Use Worldwide.” National Research Council. Currency Features for Visually Impaired People. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 1995.

 

Denomination Differentiation Method

(Y = yes; N = no; S = some denominations)

Issuing Authority

Number of Denominations

Color

Size

Tactile Recognition Symbol

Large Numeral

Malta

4

Y

Y

N

N

Man (Isle of)

4

Y

Y

N

N

Mauritania

4

S

Y

N

N

Mauritius

8

Y

Y

N

N

Mexico

8

Y

N

N

N

Mongolia

8

Y

Y

N

N

Morocco

4

Y

Y

S

N

Mozambique

6

Y

S

N

N

Myanmar

7

Y

Y

N

N

Macedonia

5

Y

N

N

N

Namibia

3

Y

Y

Y

N

Nepal

8

Y

Y

N

N

Netherlands

7

Y

Y

S

S

Netherlands Antilles

6

Y

N

Y

N

New Zealand

5

Y

Y

N

N

Nicaragua

9

Y

N

N

N

Nigeria

5

Y

N

N

N

Northern Ireland

5

Y

Y

N

N

Norway

4

Y

Y

N

N

Oman

9

Y

Y

N

N

Pakistan

7

Y

Y

N

N

Papua New Guinea

4

Y

S

N

N

Paraguay

7

Y

S

N

N

Peru

6

Y

S

S

N

Philippines

7

Y

N

N

N

Page 111

Suggested Citation: “Appendix D: Features in Use Worldwide.” National Research Council. Currency Features for Visually Impaired People. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 1995.

 

Denomination Differentiation Method

(Y = yes; N = no; S = some denominations)

Issuing Authority

Number of Denominations

Color

Size

Tactile Recognition Symbol

Large Numeral

Poland

11

Y

N

N

S

Portugal

5

Y

Y

N

N

Qatar

6

Y

Y

N

N

Romania

7

Y

Y

N

N

Russia

7

Y

S

N

S

Rwanda

4

Y

Y

N

N

Saint Helena

4

Y

Y

N

N

Sao Tome and Principe

4

Y

Y

N

N

Saudi Arabia

6

Y

Y

N

N

Scotland

5

Y

S

N

N

Seychelles

4

Y

N

N

N

Sierra Leone

8

Y

N

N

N

Singapore

7

Y

Y

N

N

Slovenia

8

Y

Y

N

N

Solomon Islands

5

Y

Y

N

N

Somalia

5

Y

S

N

N

South Africa

3

Y

Y

Y

S

Spain

4

Y

Y

N

N

Sri Lanka

7

Y

Y

N

N

Sudan

7

Y

N

N

S

Surinam

6

Y

N

N

S

Swaziland

5

N

Y

N

N

Sweden

6

Y

Y

N

N

Switzerland

6

Y

Y

Y

Y

Syria

7

Y

Y

N

N

Page 112

Suggested Citation: “Appendix D: Features in Use Worldwide.” National Research Council. Currency Features for Visually Impaired People. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 1995.

 

Denomination Differentiation Method

(Y = yes; N = no; S = some denominations)

Issuing Authority

Number of Denominations

Color

Size

Tactile Recognition Symbol

Large Numeral

Taiwan

6

Y

S

N

N

Tanzania

6

Y

Y

N

N

Thailand

7

Y

Y

N

N

Tonga

6

Y

N

N

N

Trinidad and Tobago

5

Y

N

N

N

Tunisia

3

Y

Y

N

N

Turkey

6

Y

Y

N

N

Uganda

8

Y

S

N

N

United Arab Emirates

6

Y

Y

N

N

United States of America

6

N

N

N

N

Uruguay

7

Y

N

Y

N

Vanuatu

4

Y

Y

N

N

Venezuela

6

Y

N

N

N

Vietnam

11

Y

Y

N

N

West African Monetary Union

5

Y

Y

N

N

Western Samoa

4

Y

Y

N

N

Yemen

6

Y

Y

N

N

Yugoslavia

8

Y

Y

N

N

Zaire

8

Y

Y

N

N

Zambia

5

Y

Y

N

N

Zimbabwe

4

Y

Y

N

N

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